# Science for Education

## OPPONING THE THESIS: THROUGH LETTERS OF NORM TO THE PRINCIPLES OF OBJECTIVE EVALUATION

The authors establish a methodological relationship in the creativity of the competitor of the scientific degree and his opponent, revealing a single context that links: the renewal of the subject of research in the thesis, the provisions put forward for defense, the principles of their examination and assessment of the achievements of the candidate, the essence of formal requirements for revoking the opposition.

## ON THE ORIGIN OF RUSSIAN NUMERALS

A new etymology of basic Russian naturals is proposed. The origin of the names of the first four numbers is connected with the ancient erotic cultural tradition. The appearance of the names of the numbers from five to ten and the twelve is explained by the influence of Cyrillic alphabet. The interpretations of such words as "forty", "ninety", "hundred" and "thousand" are given.

## ECOLOGY BY PROFESSOR BOGDANKEVICH

This notes are the belated response onto the «Lectures on Ecology» by professor O.V. Bogdankevich. The book is a cycle lectures of O.V. Bogdankevich for students of MPhTI, molecular and biological physics department.

## «NONLINEAR MINIMUM» IN THE THEORY OF DISCRETE MAPS

The introduction in the theory of discrete maps available for understanding to senior classes pupils and students of younger years is presented. It demonstrates correlation of discrete and continuous descriptions of dynamical systems. The physical examples facilitate a perception of a material. The computer tasks are presented, which decision gives a chance to generate enough capacious collection of programs, that can be used in research work.

## RESEARCH PROBLEMS

Some problems of introduction of the research methods in high-school education are discussed. The research problems for high-school students are proposed. By solving those problems high-school students will get to know the methods of the scientific work.

## SUMMER PHYSICS MATHEMATICS SCHOOL «VARNAVINO» OF THE INSTITUTE OF APPLIED PHYSICS OF RAS

Since 1988 Institute of Applied Physics of RAS organized Summer Physics Mathematics School for children (10-11 classes of high-school) who interested physics and mathematics. Now there are two sessions of this school – in June and in August. The program of the school consists of lectures, student’s seminars, sections, experimental work.

## PROBLEMS FOR EDUCATIONAL COURSE «DYNAMICAL CHAOS»

Problems for students are presented to be solved with computer for the educational course «Dynamical Chaos». The set of problems covers topics from the nature of chaos to the scenarios of its appearance. Methodical recommendations are given.

## QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS AND DISCRETE MAP FOR THE KINEMATIC PROBLEM: Solutions of problems of scientiﬁc Olympiad

The solution of two problems of scientiﬁc Olympiad are discussed. At the school level the analysis of the solutions illustrates examples of systems, which can display qualitative change of a state and for which a method of discrete maps may be applied.

## SCIENTIFIC OLYMPIAD «PHYSICIST-RESEARCHER»

The new form of work with young researchers – Scientific Olympiad is introduced. The announcement of Scientific Olympiad and the problems are presented.