ISSN 0869-6632 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1905 (Online)


For citation:

Alexandrova N. S. “Computer metaphor”, interhemispheral asymmetry and species (spontaneous) knowledge of Homo sapiens. Izvestiya VUZ. Applied Nonlinear Dynamics, 2022, vol. 30, iss. 3, pp. 358-372. DOI: 10.18500/0869-6632-2022-30-3-358-372

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0).
Full text PDF(Ru):
(downloads: 350)
Language: 
Russian
Article type: 
Article
UDC: 
159.922; 159.99; 57.022; 57.024; 004.81

“Computer metaphor”, interhemispheral asymmetry and species (spontaneous) knowledge of Homo sapiens

Autors: 
Alexandrova Nina Shalvaevna, Sprachbrucke e.V. Berlin
Abstract: 

The purpose of this article is to supplement the discussion in the field of research and modeling of the process of cognition first with data from neuropsychology and interhemispheric asymmetry, and second with reflections on species’ (spontaneous) knowledge of Homo sapiens. I. The data of neuropsychology and interhemispheric asymmetry signify two differently directed and complementary ways of processing information and regulating the functions inherent in the brain. One of these methods is analytical computer-like information processing, which is necessary for voluntary learning, the other method provides holistic-simultaneous, imaginative, unconscious, and involuntary processing. The duality of cognitive strategies is clearly manifested in the psychological analysis of syndromes in the case of brain lesions, as well as various conditions in healthy people (for example, in the case of bilingualism). II. Biological existence, which is the basis for all other layers of life, is provided by species-specific behavior and knowledge. Presumably species knowledge manifests itself as 1 — Constant involuntary assessment of the surrounding world and adequate reactions to changes in the world: from ordinary reactions (step aside, add a step, etc.) to the ability to react without hesitation in dangerous situations. 2 — The ability to understand connections between phenomena without scientific calculations. The entire history of mankind speaks of the existence of such an ability. People survived without science and created science along the way. 3 — Deep knowledge (often without the ability to logically explain) of what is natural and useful for us as representatives of the Homo Sapiens species, and of what is unnatural and harmful. There are reasons to assume that species knowledge is the basis that determines the common behavior of people of different eras and cultures in everything related to the continuation of the family and the cultivation of a new generation. Species knowledge merges together in the process of development with the knowledge gained during training.

Reference: 
  1. Anokhin KV. The cognitome: Seeking the fundamental neuroscience of a theory of consciousness. Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology. 2021;51(7):915–937. DOI: 10.1007/s11055-021-01149-4.
  2. Maffei R. Between instincts and reason: understanding a critical relationship [Electronic resource]. 2021. Academia Letters. Available from: https://www.academia.edu/51621276/Between_instincts_ and_reason_understanding_a_critical_relationship.
  3. Piccinini G. The first computational theory of mind and brain: A close look at McCulloch and Pitts’s “Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity”. Synthese. 2004;141(2):175–215. DOI: 10.1023/B:SYNT.0000043018.52445.3e.
  4. Mi lkowski M. Why think that the brain is not a computer? APA Newsletter. Philosophy and Computers. 2017;16(2):22–28.
  5. Mi lkowski M. Objections to computationalism: A survey. Roczniki Filozoficzne. 2018;66(3): 57–75. DOI: 10.18290/rf.2018.66.3-3.
  6. Piccinini G. Neurocognitive Mechanisms: Explaining Biological Cognition. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2020. 416 p. DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198866282.001.0001.
  7. Niedenthal PM, Barsalou LW, Winkielman P, Krauth-Gruber S, Ric F. Embodiment in attitudes, social perception, and emotion. Personality and Social Psychology Review. 2005;9(3):184–211. DOI: 10.1207/s15327957pspr0903_1.
  8. Barsalou LW. Grounded cognition. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 2008;59:617–645. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093639.
  9. Wilson RA, Foglia L. Embodied cognition [Electronic resource]. In: Zalta EN, editor. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford: CSLI, Stanford University; 2016. Available from: https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2016/entries/embodied-cognition/.
  10. Adams F. Embodied cognition. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences. 2010;9(4):619–628. DOI: 10.1007/s11097-010-9175-x.
  11. Fuchs T. Ecology of the Brain: The Phenomenology and Biology of the Embodied Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2017. 368 p. DOI: 10.1093/med/9780199646883.001.0001.
  12. Falikman MV. Cognitive science in the 21st century: organism, society, culture. Psychological Journal of the International University of Nature, Society and Man «Dubna». 2012;(3):31–37 (in Russian).
  13. Broca P. Remarques sur le siege de la faculte du langage articule, suivies d’une observation d’aphemie (perte de la parole). Bulletin et Memoires de la Societe Anatomique de Paris. 1861;36:330–357 (in French).
  14. Jackson J. Ambidexterity: Or Two-Handedness And Two-Brainedness, An Argument For Natural Development And Rational Education. London: Kegan Paul; 1905. 258 p.
  15. Jackson JH. On the nature of the duality of the brain. The Medical Press and Circular. 1874;1: 41–44.
  16. Vygotsky LS. Psychology and the doctrine of the localization of mental functions. In: Collected Works. In 6 Volumes. Vol. 1. Questions of Theory and History of Psychology. Moscow: Pedagogika; 1982. P. 168–174 (in Russian). 
  17. Luriya AR. The Human Brain and Mental Processes. In 2 Volumes. Vol. 2. Neuropsychological Analysis of Conscious Activity. Moscow: Pedagogika; 1970. 496 p. (in Russian).
  18. Dobrokhotova TA, Bragina NN. Functional Asymmetry and Psychopathology of Focal Brain Lesions. Moscow: Meditsina; 1977. 360 p. (in Russian).
  19. Simernitskaya EG. Neuropsychological approach to the study of dominance of the hemispheres. In: Dominance of the Hemispheres. Moscow: Moscow University Press; 1978. P. 49–68 (in Russian).
  20. Bragina NN, Dobrokhotova TA. Functional Human Asymmetries. Moscow: Meditsina; 1981. 288 p. (in Russian).
  21. Kotik BS. Interhemispheric Interaction in Humans. Rostov-on-Don: Rostov University Publishing; 1992. 176 p. (in Russian).
  22. Khomskaya ED. On the asymmetry of brain blocks. In: Khomskaya ED, editor. Neuropsychology Today. Moscow: Moscow University Press; 1995. P. 14–27 (in Russian).
  23. Vizel’ TG. On the nature of hemispheric integrations. Asymmetry. 2015;9(4):39–47 (in Russian). DOI: 10.18454/ASY.2015.34.735.
  24. Azarova EA, Kotik-Fridgut BS. Interhemispheric Interaction in Humans. Tutorial. Rostov-on-Don: Southern Federal University Publishing; 2021. 158 p. (in Russian).
  25. Aleksandrova NS. Visual agnosia and duality of visual recognition. In: Proceedings of the VI All-Russian Conference «Nonlinear Dynamics in Cognitive Research – 2019». 23-27 September 2019, Nizhny Novgorod. Nizhny Novgorod: IAP RAS; 2019. P. 22–26 (in Russian).
  26. Aleksandrova NS. Schematic drawing as a cognitive process and why patients with facial agnosia do not recognize faces. In: First National Congress on Cognitive Research, Artificial Intelligence and Neuroinformatics «IX International Conference on Cognitive Science». Collection of Scientific Papers. In 2 Parts. P. 1. 10-16 October, Moscow, Russia. Moscow: NRNY MEPHI; 2021. P. 285–288 (in Russian).
  27. Sperry RW. Some general aspects of interhemispheric integration. In: Mountcastle VB, editor. Interhemispheric Relations and Cerebral Dominance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press; 1962. P. 43–49.
  28. Zaidel E. Lexical organisation in right hemisphere. In: Buser PA, Rougeul-Buser A, editors. Cerebral Correlates of Conscious Experience. Netherlands: Elsevier; 1978. P. 177–196.
  29. Jung-Beeman M, Bowden EM, Haberman J, Frymiare JL, Arambel-Liu S, Greenblatt R, Reber PJ, Kounios J. Neural activity when people solve verbal problems with insight. PLoS Biol. 2004;2(4): e97. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020097.
  30. McGilchrist I. The Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World. New Haven: Yale University Press; 2009. 608 p.
  31. Kok EP. Visual Agnosia. Leningrad: Meditsina; 1967. 224 p. (in Russian).
  32. Luriya AR. Foreword. In: Simernitskaya EG. Dominance of the Hemispheres. Moscow: Moscow University Press; 1978. P. 5–6 (in Russian).
  33. Vygotsky LS. Thinking and Speaking. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The M.I.T. Press; 1962. 246 p.
  34. Alexandrova NS, Antonets VA, Kuzenkov OA, Nuidel IV, Shemagina OV, Yakhno VG. Bilingualism as an unstable state. In: Velichkovsky BM, Balaban PM, Ushakov VL, editors. Advances in Cognitive Research, Artificial Intelligence and Neuroinformatics. Intercognsci 2020. Vol. 1358 of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Cham: Springer; 2021. P. 359–367. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-71637-0_41.
  35. Aleksandrova NS, Alexandrova OA. Impressive (sensory) alalia. S.S. Korsakov Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry. 2016;116(11):114–120 (in Russian). DOI: 10.17116/jnevro201611611114-120. 
  36. Dehaene S, Cohen L. Cultural recycling of cortical maps. Neuron. 2007;56(2):384–398. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2007.10.004.
  37. Dundas EM, Plaut DC, Behrmann M. The joint development of hemispheric lateralization for words and faces. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 2013;142(2):348–358. DOI: 10.1037/a0029503.
  38. Castro-Caldas A, Reis A. Neurobiological substrates of illiteracy. The Neuroscientist. 2000;6(6): 475–482. DOI: 10.1177/107385840000600610.
  39. Jackson JH. Selected Works on Aphasia. St. Petersburg: Niva; 1996. 72 p. (in Russian).
  40. Lenneberg EH. Biologische Grundlagen der Sprache. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp; 1972. 597 s. (in German).
  41. Skvortsov IA, Ermolenko NA. Development of the Nervous System in Children in Normal and Pathological Conditions. Moscow: MEDpress-Inform; 2003. 368 p. (in Russian).
  42. Aleksandrova NS. Ensuring species-specific forms of behavior – the primary goal of brain plasticity? In: Proceedings of the Conference «Cognitive Research at the Present Stage». 19–22 November 2018, Arkhangelsk. Arkhangelsk: NArFU; 2018. P. 14–17 (in Russian).
  43. Severtsov AN. Evolution and the Psyche. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Sabashnikovykh; 1922. 54 p. (in Russian).
  44. Kahneman D. Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux; 2011. 499 p. 
Received: 
16.11.2021
Accepted: 
14.03.2022
Published: 
31.05.2022