ISSN 0869-6632 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1905 (Online)


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Sitnikova E. Y. Thalamo-cortical dysrhythmia and its diagnostic principles. Izvestiya VUZ. Applied Nonlinear Dynamics, 2020, vol. 28, iss. 3, pp. 282-298. DOI: 10.18500/0869-6632-2020-28-3-282-298

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0).
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Russian
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Article
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530.182

Thalamo-cortical dysrhythmia and its diagnostic principles

Autors: 
Sitnikova Evgenia Yurievna, Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science "Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology RAS"
Abstract: 

Aim. In the brain of mammals and humans, several widespread neuronal networks are capable of generating spontaneous rhythmic activity. Among them is the thalamo-cortical network, which involves neurons of the thalamus (diencephalon) and in the neocortex and characterized by hierarchical organization. The thalamo-cortical network generates alpha rhythms with a frequency of about 8...14 Hz. Various neurological and psychiatric disorders are known to associate with similar disturbances of thalamo-cortical rhythms, i.e. the thalamo-cortical dysrhythmia. In particular, absence epilepsy, a non-convulsive form of epilepsy caused by disturbances of the thalamo-cortical system. Absence seizures involve brief and sudden lapses of consciousness (i.e., the state of «absence») associated with high-amplitude spike-wave discharges in the encephalogram. The current paper describes morphology of the thalamo-cortical system and diagnostic principles of the thalamo-cortical dysrhythmia. Methods. WAG/Rij rats with genetic predisposition to absence epilepsy were used as a model of the thalamo-cortical dysrhythmia. Electrical brain activity was recorded from the surface of neocortex using implanted electrodes (electrocorticogram, ECoG). Time-frequency analysis of rhythmic activity in ECoG was performed using continuous wavelet transform and the fast Fourier transform. Results. The following hallmarks of the thalamo-cortical dysrhythmia were defined. (1) During the slow-wave sleep, the spectral power in ECoG was shifted from slow to fast frequencies. (2) Short-lasting episodes of 3...12 Hz rhythmic activity with the amplitude maximum in delta (3...4 Hz) and theta (5...9 Hz) ranges were present in the frontal ECoG. (3) The so-called «pro-epileptic» 5...9 Hz oscillations were present in the frontal ECoG. Conclusion. The most pronounced manifestation of the thalamo-cortical dysrhythmia was found in ECoG during the slow-wave sleep. The dysrhythmic mechanism mostly affected short-lasting slow-wave oscillations with a frequency of 3...4 Hz and 5...9 Hz in combination with disturbances of the time-frequency structure of ECoG.

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Received: 
29.10.2019
Accepted: 
16.02.2020
Published: 
30.06.2020